Dear Scarsdale Community,
Oh what a night! Last Thursday evening, Scarsdale came together to celebrate the extraordinary contributions our past two years’ honorees - BK Munguia and Jon Mark, and Michelle Lichtenberg - and current honoree, Terry Singer, have made to our community. We also recognized the vibrant spirit and culture of volunteerism that helps Scarsdale shine on. All who were present at the event help make Scarsdale the exceptional place it is to live, work, and play. Thank you Scarsdalians for joining us!
A mere 736 days after the date originally slated for the 2020 Scarsdale Bowl Dinner, we were at last together. Although the room was tight, the temperature unseasonably frigid, and seating plans needed adjusting because of last minute cancellations due to Covid, the joy in the room was palpable.
All our honorees share many qualities that make them exceptional volunteers and true leaders. Here is my Top Six List:
With much appreciation,
Scarsdale Bowl Chair, 2020-2022
Dear Scarsdale Community,
We hope many of you will attend the SCARSDALE FOUNDATION BOWL DINNER on Thursday, April 28th where we will celebrate honorees BK Munguia and Jon Mark (2020), Michelle Lichtenberg (2021), and Terry Singer (2022) at Brae Burn Country Club.
There are no paper invitations this year so please use this link to visit the Scarsdale Foundation website to purchase your tickets.
Separately, please consider recognizing friends and neighbors who have volunteered in our community by placing them on the Scarsdale Foundation Volunteer Honor Roll. It’s a great way to show gratitude to all our community volunteers and those named will receive an email certificate and will be recognized in local print and online media, and, of course, at the Bowl Dinner.
All the money raised at the dinner, and via the Honor Roll, will help the Scarsdale Foundation reach its goal of providing $150,000 in need-based scholarships for Scarsdale college students in their sophomore, junior, and senior years in college.
Volunteerism is the backbone of the Scarsdale community, and what makes our village a wonderful and unique place to live. We look forward to celebrating our extraordinary volunteers together at our celebration on April 28th. We hope to see you there. Shine on Scarsdale!
Scarsdale Bowl Chair, 2020-2022
Students who graduated from Scarsdale High School or lived in Scarsdale during their high school years and who have completed their first, second, or third years of college are invited to apply to the Scarsdale Foundation for tuition assistance. For the 2021-2022 academic year, the Foundation awarded need-based grants totaling $139,000 to 31 students attending private and state-supported colleges and universities.
Applications for the 2022-2023 academic year should be submitted online from the Scarsdale Foundation’s website. Completed applications must be submitted by Wednesday, June 1, 2022. Questions should be directed to Scholarship Committee Co-Chairs Anne Lyons or B. Kathleen Munguia at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The Foundation welcomes contributions from the community to augment the funds available for distribution each year. Contributions may be donated to a specially earmarked Scholarship Fund of the Scarsdale Foundation, enabling the Foundation to carry on the tradition of helping students in need pursue a college education. Donations may be made online by visiting the Foundation’s website or mailed to the Scarsdale Foundation at P.O. Box 542, Scarsdale, NY 10583.
The Foundation also hosts the Scarsdale Bowl Dinner where Scarsdale individuals are recognized for their volunteer service to the community. The Scarsdale Bowl will be presented to the 2022 recipient on Thursday, April 28 at the Brae Burn Country Club. The 2020 and 2021 Bowl recipients will be honored at the April dinner as well.
For more information regarding the work of the Scarsdale Foundation, please visit its website: www.scarsdalefoundation.org.
Anne Lyons B. Kathleen Munguia
Scarsdale, NY, January 10, 2022 – Terry Singer, an exceptional volunteer in the Scarsdale community with decades of commitment to volunteerism, will be the 2022 recipient of the community’s highest honor and award, the Scarsdale Bowl. The Scarsdale Bowl has been awarded annually since 1943 to “one who has given unselfishly of time, energy, and effort to the civic welfare of the community.”
As Nancy Michaels, Chair of the Scarsdale Bowl, said “Terry Singer is the consummate volunteer. When we think about the qualities and characteristics of the ideal Scarsdale Bowl recipient – an incredible doer, someone with a collaborative nature, a good partner, positive attitude – Terry Singer immediately comes to mind. She has worked tirelessly on behalf of all of Scarsdale for over 30 years of community service. She has literally touched and improved the lives of children, teens, and adults in Scarsdale.”
The Bowl Committee, a diverse group of 15 community volunteers, selects the recipient after reviewing and vetting many worthy candidates who are nominated annually by the community. After the Bowl Committee voted on Sunday night to award Ms. Singer the Scarsdale Bowl, Nancy Michaels along with committee members Michelle Lichtenberg and Margot Milberg went to her house immediately, as is tradition, to tell her about the Bowl Committee’s decision. However, she wasn’t home so the group returned later that evening to share the news. “I am so surprised,” said the shocked Bowl winner. “I’m really speechless; I just can’t believe it! I am so honored. Thank you so much.”
Ms. Singer, along with the Bowl recipients from the past two years, Jon Mark and BK Munguia (2020) and Michelle Lichtenberg (2021), will be honored at the Scarsdale Foundation Bowl Dinner on Thursday, April 28 at Brae Burn Country Club in Purchase. Ms. Michaels encourages all members of the community to attend the dinner which will be a celebration of community and of volunteerism in Scarsdale. The Bowl Committee will send out invitations in early March; however, one need not receive an invitation to attend. The entire community is invited to this wonderful, celebratory event. Even if Covid is not completely behind us, the plan is for the event to go on outdoors at Brae Burn Country Club.
Ms. Singer has been involved in all aspects of community service since she moved to Scarsdale. When Singer’s children were young, she served on the Board of Kids’ B.A.S.E. and the Little School, as PTA President for Heathcote Elementary School, and as VP of the High School PTA.
Ms. Singer engaged in public service for the Scarsdale community at large by leveraging her architecture degree and professional experience to serve on, and chair, various Scarsdale Village Boards and Committees. Since 1991, she has taken on important roles on the BAR, the Planning Board, and the Conservation Advisory Council. She balanced these commitments with service to the League of Women Voters, the School Board Nominating Committee, the Historical Society, and Westchester Reform Temple. At Cornell University, her alma mater, she served as President of the College of Human Ecology Alumni Association, and in various roles on the College's Dean's Advisory Board, the President's Council of Cornell Women, and the Cornell University Council. Ms. Singer currently serves on the Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District and is finishing her second year as Co-Chair of the Board of Directors of the Scarsdale Adult School, having already served eight years as a member of the Board.
Ms. Singer has also exhibited extraordinary commitment to the Scarsdale Library, as a Trustee and Vice President of the Board from 2013 to 2018. Her term was ending just when the physical construction at the Library was set to begin, but she agreed to stay on and co-chair the Library Building Committee for more than two years. She frequently met with the architect, Village officials, Library Director, Library President, and the project’s manager and vendors to share her knowledge and to help make sure that the library construction was done properly in a timely way, and on budget. Ms. Singer remains very involved at the Library and is currently serving on its Landscaping Committee.
As her Co-Chair of the Scarsdale Adult School, Lisa Tretler says: “Terry works quietly yet effectively. She is collaborative, sincere, and seeks out the opinions and views of others. Terry has a lovely way of working with people – never ruffled, with a calm demeanor. She is an inspiring leader.”
“Terry loves to work in the background and not let the spotlight find her,” says Elyse Klayman, a past president of the Scarsdale Library Board of Trustees. “That’s why seeing her receive this award is so wonderful. Terry is always willing to pitch in. If there is a difference of opinion, she tries to find common ground in a courteous and respectful way. Her mind is fully engaged, and open. She does not shy away from difficult decisions, but rather handles them in a diplomatic manner. Those of us who have had the chance to work closely with Terry are the better for it, and we are tremendously grateful for all that she has done for Scarsdale.”
Despite the pandemic, The Scarsdale Foundation and Scarsdale Bowl Committee have been active during the past year, and the community has been extremely supportive and generous.
Bowl Committee Seeks 2022 Honoree Recommendations by November 25
The 2021 Scarsdale Bowl Committee will begin working to select the 2022 recipient of the Scarsdale Bowl award at its initial meeting on December 12th and is seeking recommendations from the community for next year’s honoree by November 25 but nominations will be accepted up until December 12. Nominees must be Scarsdale residents who do not currently hold an elective office. CLICK THE BUTTON ABOVE TO ACCESS THE NOMINEE RECOMMENDATION FORM: bit.ly/NominateSB2022.
Any member of the Bowl Committee will gladly answer questions, and Chair Nancy Michaels may be reached at 914-725-8310 or at NancyMichaels311@gmail.com.
Guidelines for Nominations
The Scarsdale Bowl, under the sponsorship of the Scarsdale Foundation, has been awarded annually since 1943 to an individual (or in exceptional cases, to a married couple) who has given “unselfishly of their time, energy, and effort to the civic welfare of the community.” The founding donors of the Bowl believed that “many who serve generously and voluntarily, without office, honor, or publicity, are those deserving of having their names permanently inscribed on the Scarsdale Bowl.”
Annual Bowl Dinner – SAVE THE DATE!
The community celebration dinner is currently scheduled to be held in-person on Thursday, April 28th, 2022 at Brae Burn Country Club in Purchase.
The Scarsdale Bowl Dinner 2022, themed “Shine on Scarsdale,” will pay tribute to the newest Bowl honoree, as well as recognize 2020 winners BK Munguia and Jonathan Mark, and 2021 recipient Michelle Lichtenberg since we were unable to gather in person during Covid. The Committee is grateful that despite the dinner’s cancellation, the Scarsdale community has been generous, making donations toward the Foundation’s college scholarships, which are more crucial than ever. The hope is that next year the community will be able to properly celebrate the spirit of volunteerism, central to the civic life of Scarsdale, and that another group of deserving students will benefit from the evening’s proceeds. In addition, the Honor Roll will again allow everyone to recognize the day-to-day volunteerism of friends and neighbors while generating more support for the Foundation’s projects.
2022 Bowl Committee
Michelle Lichtenberg, President of the Scarsdale Foundation, announced that Nancy Michaels will once again serve as chair of this year’s Scarsdale Bowl Committee, and Abby Sroka will continue as the Secretary/Treasurer. Members of the Bowl Committee serve a staggered two-year term. The members of the newly-appointed class of 2023 are Becky Bach, Sara Farnsworth, Adam Hellegers, Eric Lichtenstein, Margot Milberg, Erika Rublin, and Beverly Thornhill. The continuing class of 2022 is comprised of Sergi Flaster, Michael Rosen, Svati Shashank, Scott Silberfein, Loretta Vickers, and Han Zou. Jennifer Love, a Scarsdale Foundation trustee, will serve on the Committee as the liaison for the second year.
The Scarsdale Foundation Honor Roll Update
In 2021, nearly a thousand individuals were named to The Scarsdale Foundation Honor Roll by their friends, neighbors, and family for volunteerism, raising close to $30,000. The Honor Roll was a wonderful way to celebrate all the volunteers in our village who make a difference. Thanks to the Scarsdale community’s generosity and partnership, these funds can now be distributed as college scholarships for deserving Scarsdale students in need.
View Additional information about the Scarsdale Bowl. We are looking forward to being together next year!
Dear Scarsdale Community,
On June 2nd, in the backyard of Scarsdale Foundation President Randy Guggenheimer and his wife Liz, the Scarsdale Bowl Committee and Foundation Board celebrated this year’s Scarsdale Bowl honoree, Michelle Lichtenberg.
Michelle has lived the mantra of a strong belief in public service, and has been an exemplary volunteer whom we are proud to have as a role model. Over the years, Michelle has given unselfishly of her time to a large variety of causes, bringing about positive change via her unique ability to promote cooperation, consensus, commitment, and connections, all with a generosity of spirit, inspiration, and diplomacy. She has constantly gone above and beyond what is asked of her, exemplifying the vibrant spirit and culture of volunteerism that permeates Scarsdale.
Philanthropic giving, leadership, and the generous donation of time and expertise by volunteers like Michelle combine to create the dynamic fuel that helps make Scarsdale a home and desirable community. I was privileged to have worked with the members of this year’s Bowl Committee, a terrific and knowledgeable group of volunteers who worked tirelessly on an event that didn’t happen in the usual manner, and who extended their tenure to ensure that this year’s Bowl celebration would be a memorable night for Michelle. Because of Covid and the need for meetings on Zoom, many on the Committee had never met in person until the evening of the celebration.
Along with this group, our Fundraising and Publicity Committees met weekly to strategize how to meet the formidable goal of raising $50,000 via the Scarsdale Foundation Honor Roll towards need-based college scholarships for Scarsdale students. Our webmaster and marketing and graphic design gurus also helped to guide us in the right direction. Special acknowledgement to Scarsdale Bowl Secretary/Treasurer Abby Sroka, who managed online sales, distributed and sent Evites and eblasts, and was always willing to help. Thank you all.
It was my incredible pleasure and distinct honor to present Michelle Lichtenberg with the 2021 Scarsdale Bowl Award for Outstanding Community Service. We look forward to honoring Michelle, along with last year’s recipients BK Munguia and Jon Mark, as well as the 2022 honoree to be selected by the next Bowl Committee, at a blow-out celebration on Thursday, April 28, 2022 with all their friends and the Scarsdale Community present.
Thank you to everyone in the Scarsdale community who has continued to support the Scarsdale Bowl and Foundation, especially during these past two very difficult seasons.
Scarsdale Bowl Chair
Beloved 30-year Scarsdale resident Michelle Lichtenberg was honored on the evening of Wednesday, June 2 with the Scarsdale Bowl, one of the highest and most prestigious honors for a Scarsdale resident. Since 1943, the Scarsdale Bowl, administered by the Scarsdale Foundation, has been awarded to an individual or couple “who has given unselfishly of time, energy and effort to the civic welfare of the community.”
The ceremony was hosted outdoors at the home of Scarsdale Foundation President Randy Guggenheimer and his wife Liz. Guests included members of Michelle’s family, the Scarsdale Bowl Committee, and the Scarsdale Foundation Board, Mayor Jane Veron, and our 2020 Scarsdale Foundation Bowl recipients, married couple BK Munguia and Jon Mark.
This year’s festivities were superbly handled by Bowl Chair Nancy Michaels and Suzanne Seiden, Foundation trustee, with a greatly-appreciated last-minute assist from committee member Janice Starr.
In her speech, Bowl Chair Nancy Michaels thanked her committee, the Scarsdale Foundation, and the many volunteers in Scarsdale whose community service sets an example for others. Addressing Michelle, Nancy said, “I have noticed appreciation, respect, humility, and thoughtfulness that pervades all that you do…You have a unique ability to promote cooperation, consensus, commitment, and connections…You are extraordinary; you are a shining example to us all.”
Our Inspiring Bowl Honoree
Born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the oldest of four children of a stay-at-home mother and her father, a child psychiatrist, Michelle was raised in Bethesda, Maryland. Growing up with a brother with special needs, Michelle’s watch words from an early age were kindness, compassion, and empathy.
After she received a B.A. in English and Art from Skidmore College, Michelle returned to the D.C. area where she worked in advertising for the Circle Theaters Corp. She met her husband Frank while he was a Fellow at the Brookings Institute. They married in 1981 and embarked upon a series of moves, from Watertown, Massachusetts, where Michelle earned her M.B.A. at Northeastern University while working at the university, to New York City, after a six-month detour to Australia, where Michelle was associate director of Executive Education at Columbia Business School.
Michelle and Frank moved with their two young sons Alec and Andrew to Scarsdale in 1991. She was soon approached by the Greenacres PTA President, and thus began decades of selfless dedication to Scarsdale. A working mother, Michelle was first drawn to the district-wide PT Council Budget Study Committee because she was able to attend the evening meetings. Once she transitioned away from working full time, Michelle became active in the PTAs at Greenacres, the Middle School, the High School, and in PT Council. As SHS PTA President, Michelle spearheaded the “Red Carpet Walk” in 2003, an event developed to curtail drinking during pre-prom parties and limousine rides to the prom. The Red Carpet Walk is now a popular community event enjoyed by all.
In addition to her years of service in the school PTAs, Michelle served as Co-Chair of the Scarsdale Drug and Alcohol Task Force, Co-Chair of the Scarsdale Education Transfer Program, a member of the School Board Nominating Committee, the Citizens Nominating Committee, and Scarsdale Forum Education Program Committee, Chair of the Procedure Committee, a Director-at-Large of Scarsdale Edgemont Family Counseling Service, and President of the League of Women Voters of Scarsdale.
Michelle has also been actively involved with the Scarsdale Public Library for the last ten years, serving as a Trustee from 2011 to 2016 and President from 2013 to 2015. During her presidency, she oversaw the finalization of the Library’s first Strategic Plan, the development of the Master Plan, the retention of the architectural firm responsible for the extensive renovation and expansion, and the formation of the Capital Campaign Committee. She has expressed gratitude to have participated in the Library’s transformation from inception to completion.
Ever enthusiastic for new challenges and opportunities to give back, Michelle is a current board member of the Scarsdale Foundation, the Scarsdale Adult School, and the Friends of the Scarsdale Library, a member of the Greenacres Neighborhood Association, and a District Leader and member of the Scarsdale Democratic Town Committee. And true to the spirit of the Scarsdale Bowl, you can also find Michelle encouraging residents to run for the SBNC and CNC, as well as the School Board and the Village Board, gathering required signatures for petitions, and (pre-COVID) shuttling residents to meetings and the polls. No task has ever been too large or too small. She intends to resume her volunteer work with critically ill patients at White Plains Hospital once visitor restrictions are lifted, and is working toward her accreditation in Healing Touch therapy.
Notwithstanding the responsibilities she has taken on, Michelle manages to find the time to bear witness to her new granddaughter’s magical achievements, revel in moments spent with her grown sons, enjoy long cycling trips with husband Frank, curl up with a good book, and plan her next trip post-COVID.
Michelle’s volunteer service truly sets an example of civic responsibility toward the betterment of our community. While she is grateful to the community for affording her so many rich opportunities and experiences throughout her volunteer life in Scarsdale and the friendships thus formed, we are fortunate for the many contributions Michelle has made and continues to make, with grace, humility, and generosity, in service for the common good.
The 2021 dinner, originally scheduled for April, was also slated to raise significant funds to support the important work of the Scarsdale Foundation, including scholarships for college sophomores, juniors and seniors who reside in Scarsdale and/or attended Scarsdale High School. The Foundation has introduced the Scarsdale Volunteer Honor Roll, where friends, colleagues, first-responders and teens can be honored for good works of all sorts, large and small. Please visit bit.ly/3vQRHu5 to name honorees at just $25 apiece. The Honor Roll is about halfway to its goal of raising $50,000 to bolster the chances for academic success for all SHS alumni, while also recognizing the unsung heroes of our town, particularly in light of the pandemic.
Assuming the current health crisis has passed, the Scarsdale Foundation Bowl’s traditional celebratory dinner will be back bigger than ever next year: on April 28, 2022, we hope to gather in force to raise a glass to the spirit of volunteerism in Scarsdale by honoring not only Michelle, but also 2020 Bowl recipients BK Munguia and Jon Mark, as well as spotlighting the future 2022 Bowl recipient. The entire community will be invited to come out to celebrate on that special evening! Please save the date!
The Scarsdale Foundation is extremely grateful to its corporate sponsors:
Partner ($5,000): Advantage Testing, Inc., and House of Flowers;
Founder ($2,000 to $4,999): Advocate Brokerage Corp., and Coopersmith, Simon & Vogel, P.C.;
Supporter (up to $1,999): American Legion Scarsdale Post 52, Arthur Lange, Inc., Christie-Spencer Corp., Classic Pest Control Services, LLC, Cum Laude Group, Inc., Emerald Tree & Shrub Care, Landsberg Jewelers, Lucente Landscaping
Dear Scarsdale Community,
Throughout this pandemic, many of us have looked for opportunities to help others in need. Some have really stepped up and may or may not have been recognized. Here’s an easy way to make sure they get their due: Putting friends and neighbors on the Scarsdale Foundation’s Volunteer Honor Roll not only helps raise scholarship money for Scarsdale college kids who are having a tough time paying for school, it makes those being honored feel appreciated too!
Some local heroes whom you might recognize include:
Honorees will be recognized with personalized e-certificates, on this website, and in local media. Repeat honorees will be informed each time they are named.
Participate in the honor roll challenge: The goal is to place more than 2,021 local heroes on the Honor Roll by the end of June. This is the only major fundraiser the Scarsdale Foundation will hold this year, so donations are critical to ensure that all our students can continue their studies. We hope to raise about $50,000 via the Honor Roll, which will be a significant chunk of the overall $250,000 in scholarship funds we aim to raise.
Mark Your Calendars: Although the 2021 Bowl Dinner will unfortunately not be held this spring, we will honor several years’ worth of extraordinary volunteers on April 28, 2022: last year’s Bowl winners, B.K. Munguia and Jon Mark, this year’s honoree, Michelle Lichtenberg, as well as the 2022 Scarsdale Bowl recipient.
As we emerge from what has been a difficult period, this is a great way to say thank you to all our unsung everyday heroes and make a difference at the same time. Shine on Scarsdale!
Randy Guggenheimer, Scarsdale Foundation President
Nancy Michaels, Scarsdale Foundation Bowl Committee Chair
Honor Scarsdale volunteers who have made a difference in our community.
An easy way to keep the good vibe going for just $25/honoree
Money raised helps provide college scholarships
Scarsdale is a community where we know that we can rely on each other, especially when the going gets tough. This was truer than ever this past year, as so many in our community have given their time and talent to meet life-changing challenges posed by the pandemic.
Introducing the 2021 Scarsdale Foundation Volunteer Honor Roll, a fundraising and spirit-raising opportunity to thank everyone who stepped in to help Scarsdale shine during a dark time, helping us to move forward.
As always, the money raised by the Honor Roll will help to provide crucial support to Scarsdale families facing financial hardship, making it possible to manage college tuition. We’re sure it won’t surprise anyone to learn that there is even more scholarship need than usual this year, as a result of Covid-related difficulties suffered by many.
We encourage you to name to the Honor Roll the many friends, colleagues and neighbors who have made a positive difference in our community during 2020 — any community member who helped make our lives better in big ways or small is eligible!
Examples of ways people might have helped:
These generous donations of time and caring fueled positivity in our daily lives as we all contended with the pandemic.
The 2021 Scarsdale Foundation Volunteer Honor Roll is an easy way to keep the good vibe going. Your shout-outs and contributions of just $25 per honoree will help the Scarsdale Foundation provide scholarships to the growing number of Scarsdale students who require financial assistance in order to pay college bills. In 2020, the Scarsdale Foundation awarded $138,000 in scholarships to 32 talented and determined students. This year, the Scarsdale Foundation is setting an ambitious goal to raise $250,000 so that we can meet the growing post-pandemic need. We hope you will choose to participate in this simple yet profound way to show your appreciation for one another, and to help ensure that all of our Scarsdale students have the opportunity to realize their potential.
It’s easy to make someone’s day and help others, all for just $25/Honoree:
Scarsdale Foundation Honor Roll members will be recognized:
Please think about all the people you know who make a meaningful difference here in Scarsdale and beyond who create a better place to live, work and play. We hope you’ll help the Scarsdale Foundation reach its goal for college scholarships and ensure that our students have a bright future!
Strengthening the community since 1923, the Scarsdale Foundation has served a critical role as Scarsdale’s safety net, focusing on supporting local families who need financial assistance for college tuition, as well as on supporting local organizations. The Scarsdale Foundation must raise more funds to meet the urgent need of a growing number of Scarsdale families during this especially difficult time
Students who graduated from Scarsdale High School or lived in Scarsdale during their high school years and who have completed their first, second, or third years of college are invited to apply to the Scarsdale Foundation for tuition assistance. For the current 2020-21 academic year, the Foundation awarded need-based grants totaling $138,000 to 32 students attending private and state-supported colleges and universities.
Applications for the 2021-22 academic year should be submitted online using this fill-in 2021 Scholarship Application Form by Tuesday, June 1, 2021. Additional information, including eligibility and required supporting documents, may be found on the College Scholarships webpage. Questions should be directed to Scholarship Committee Co-Chairs Anne Lyons and B. Kathleen Munguia at email@example.com.
The Foundation welcomes contributions from the community to augment the funds available for distribution each year. Contributions may be donated to a specially earmarked Scholarship Fund of the Scarsdale Foundation, enabling the Foundation to carry on the tradition of helping students in need pursue a college education. Donations may be made on our secure Donate webpage or mailed to the Scarsdale Foundation at P.O. Box 542, Scarsdale, NY 10583.
The Scarsdale Foundation also hosts the Scarsdale Bowl Dinner where Scarsdale individuals are recognized for their volunteer service to the community. The 2021 Scarsdale Bowl will be presented to Michelle Lichtenberg in a private ceremony in the spring due to current COVID-19 restrictions on larger gatherings.